AI Ethics Reference: Laws, Literature, and Controversy

Updated 5/17/19

This page collects resources grappling with the ethics of AI.

Laws or Proposed Laws

Studies, Frameworks, and other Literature:

Organizations and Programs:

  • AI Now Institute. New York University interdisciplinary research center dedicated to understanding the social implications of artificial intelligence. Published a report on lack of diversity in AI researchers.
  • 501(c)(3) based in Washington, D.C. founded around Nov. 2017. Mission statement is to “promote equity and justice in the design, governance, and use of digital technology.” Two authors on Discrimination through optimization study.
  • White House Executive Order on AI. Someone should really start thinking about this stuff? Discussion.
  • OpenAI. Founded in 2015, they have a mission to ensure that artificial intelligence “benefits all humanity.”


  • 2019 May: SF restricts agencies from using facial recognition technology. Post. See also using facial recognition in police investigations.
  • 2019 April: China facial tracking. minority muslim population with AI. Post. Meanwhile, the U.S. rolls their own facial tracking. Post.
  • 2019 March: Facebook housing suit. Facebook sued for housing discrimination in advertising; algorithms blamed. Discussion.
  • 2019 March: Amazon facial recognition. Amazon’s technology is criticized as biased. Discussion. Meanwhile, Microsoft declines to sell their system on ethical grounds.
  • 2019 February: OpenAI GPT-2. OpenAI publishes results of GPT-2 language generation model, but declines to release full model. Controversy ensues.
  • 2018 April: Google Duplex. The demonstration appears to deceive humans by design. Article.